Personal Safety and Lone Working Information

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HSE & Lone working

‘There are no absolute restrictions on working alone; However, the

law requires employers and others to think about and deal with

any health and safety risks before people should be allowed to

work alone.’

  Health & Safety Executive (HSE


There are two main pieces of legislation that apply:

  1. The Health and Safety at Work Act (1974): sets out a duty of care on employers to ensure the health, safety and welfare of their employees whilst they are at work.

Employers are legally obliged to ensure, as far is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare of their employees whilst at work.

Employees also have a responsibility to ensure their own safety, and that of colleagues and others present in the workplace, as well as bringing to the attention of managers any hazards of which they become aware..

  1. Management of Health and Safety at work Regulation

   This regulation requires employers to assess risks to employees and non- employees and make arrangements for effective planning, organisation, control and review of

health and safety risks

Policy and procedures

Lone working policies and procedures should be developed in line

with the organisations policy and procedures guidelines.

Policies and procedures must be kept under constant review to take

into account any changes in the external environment, the

introduction of new technologies and the lessons learned from the

investigation of incidents that occur.

Risk assessment

The crucial element in ensuring the safety of lone workers is the risk


The main aims of a risk assessment are to find out whether the work

can be done safely by a lone worker

The steps that should be taken when carrying out a risk assessment are:

  • Identify the possible hazards to the safety of workers working alone
  • Identify safety measures to prevent incidents from occurring
  • Record this information in an accessible place.
  • Provide information and training to staff about the possible risks and measures to prevent incidents occurring.
  • Managers and supervisors should monitor and review assessments regularly to ensure it is still valid.

Other Potential Hazards

  • Hazards
  • Office staff not able to answer queries out of hours
  • Sudden illness of the care worker
  • Having to park in unlit, isolated areas
  • Violence from people on the streets, other drivers, from people using the service or
  • their friends/ relatives
  • Pets
  • Theft

Potential Safety Measures


Assessment of people’s needs should include whether they or any of

their friends or family is likely to become aggressive whilst the care

worker is carrying out their care and treatment.

On – Call systems

Where a care worker has to carry out visits out-of-hours, either in the

evenings, at night or during the weekend or bank holiday, on-call

system may be required for care worker to be able to alert someone at

work to an emergency situation.


As part of the planning process, the emergency equipment that may be

required should be assessed. This might include a torch, map of the

local area, telephone numbers for emergencies a first aid kit and

alarms or devices with the agreed code words or phrases that should

be used.

Potential Safety Measures


Office staff should be aware of who each care worker is to visit during

the day, the order of the visit and the amount of time they should spend

on each visit.

Tracking and tracing systems

A system to be able to trace the whereabouts of the care worker.

It is essential that lone workers keep in contact with colleagues and

ensure that they make another colleague aware of their movements.

This can be done by implementing management procedures such as a

‘buddy system.’

Home visits

  • Check any available records on the client prior to a visit. If they have any history of aggression, discuss the possibility of taking a partner.
  • Make sure someone knows where you are going, who you are visiting and when you are expected to leave.
  • When someone answers the door, check who you are talking to. Do not enter the house at all if the appropriate person is not available.
  • Let them know how much of their time you will need.
  • Acknowledge that it is their territory, let them lead the way and don’t take over.
  • You may decide not to go in, or to leave immediately, if the person is, for example, drunk or obviously aggressive; listen to your instincts.
  • Check as you go in how the front door locks.
  • Study your surroundings; try to sit nearest the door.
  • Take only what you need inside.
  • Remain alert; watch for changes in mood, movements or expressions.
  • If you feel at risk – leave as soon as possible. Have an excuse ready: e.g. that you need to get a form from the car.

Their body language

warning & danger signs / sign we may see

  • Accelerated breathing
  • Agitated movements
  • Pacing / cant rest
  • Widening stance
  • Clenching fists
  • Invading personal space
  • Intent staring..

Your Body Language

Body that would class language as being :

  • Negative
  • Nervous
  • Aggressive
  • Positive
  • Orientation – face to face can be confrontational
  • Space – 6ft at least 2 arms lengths
  • Touching – try not to touch may lead to negative reaction
  • Head movements – active listening or a victim?
  • Be aware of your posture , slow down your breathing
  • Hand signals – do not point, avoid jerky movements
  • Repetitive movements can be seen as increased tension

De-escalation Communication Model






Assertive strategy

  • State the behaviour – be specific tell them what they are doing ‘John you are shouting at me, I need you to lower your voice’
  • State the impact of the behaviour on you – i.e its confusing me
  • Request it to stop – ensure that stop is the last word i.e please stop
  • Return to task – now lets see what we can do

Fight and flight – the law

Common law – Self defence

“ A person can use force as is reasonable to repel an attack”

What is reasonable?




Reporting and Documentation

It is important that staff are encouraged and supported by their

organisation to report all incidents of physical and non-physical

assault, using the organisation’s incident report form. This will

enable the organisation to conduct a thorough investigation and to

ensure that all appropriate cases of physical assault are reported

to the police as soon as possible for appropriate action to be taken.

This will also allow organisations to improve further the local

policies and procedures to minimise the risks that these staff face.

Staff should also report near misses that could have resulted in a

serious incident.


Post-incident support

Employers should have measures in place to support any

member of staff who has been subject to an abusive or violent

incident. These might include a debrief following the incident,

psychological support, counselling services, post-trauma support,

peer support and access to the staff member’s professional or

trade union representative.

The organisation’s lone worker policy/procedure should provide

information about what support is available and relevant contact




We can provide training all over the North West including but not limited to the following locations;
Lancaster, Manchester, Liverpool, Warrington, Blackpool, Chester, Stockport, Sale, Bolton, Preston, Rochdale, Blackburn, Wigan, St. Helens, Wythenshawe, Salford, Oldham, Southport, Birkenhead, Bury, Bootle, Carlisle, Northwich, Burnley, Barrow-in-Furness, Crewe, Runcorn, Widnes, Wallasey, Ellesmere Port, Altrincham, Macclesfield, Crosby, Leigh, Accrington, Lancaster, Ashton-under-Lyne, Middleton, Lytham St Annes, Urmston, Kirkby, Skelmersdale, Eccles, Stretford, Denton, Leyland, Chadderton, Morecambe, Chorley, Hyde, Huyton, Thornton-Cleveleys, Prestwich, Saddleworth, Winsford, Farnworth, Radcliffe, Nelson, Kendal, Heywood, Reddish, Darwen, Hindley, Cheadle Hulme, Fleetwood, Congleton, Swinton, Workington, South Turton, Westhoughton, Wilmslow, Ormskirk, Golborne, Whitehaven, Stalybridge, Marple, Whitefield, Droylsden, Penwortham, Formby, Litherland, Newton-le-Willows, Aherton, Rawtenstall, Royton, Walkden, Shaw and Crompton, Failsworth, Maghull, Halewood, Horwich, Irlam, Dukinfield, Colne, Poulton-le-Fylde, Sandbach, Ramsbottom, Moreton, Bramhall, Nantwich, Haslingden, Upton, Hazel Grove, Clitheroe.
Please see our other course pages to view details of the following courses or contact us on 07376 634655/
Care certificate Training, Mandatory Health Day, Epilepsy Awareness, Autism Awareness, Dementia Awareness, Managing Behaviour, Mental Capacity & DoLS, Infection Control, Disability Awareness, Working at Heights, Health and Safety Awareness, Evac Chair Training, Health and Safety L2, Risk Assessments, Asbestos Awareness, Emergency First Aid, First Aid at Work, First Aid at Work Requalification, Basic Life Support including Defib, Food Safety Awareness, Food Safety L2, Food Safety L3, Safeguarding Children and Young People L2, Safeguarding Children and Young People L3, Safeguarding Adults L2, Conflict Resolution, Personal Safety & Lone Working, Fire Safety, Manual Handling, People Moving and Handling.








Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one’s capability, capacity, productivity and performance. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labour-market recognize as of 2008 the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development.


On job training

Some commentators use a similar term for workplace learning to improve performance: “training and development“. There are also additional services available online for those who wish to receive training above and beyond that which is offered by their employers. Some examples of these services include career counselling, skill assessment, and supportive services. One can generally categorize such training as on-the-job or off-the-job.


The on-the-job training method takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. On-the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work. It involves employee training at the place of work while he or she is doing the actual job. Usually, a professional trainer (or sometimes an experienced employee) serves as the course instructor using hands-on training often supported by formal classroom training. Sometimes training can occur by using web-based technology or video conferencing tools.


Simulation based training is another method which uses technology to assist in trainee development. This is particularly common in the training of skills requiring a very high degree of practice, and in those which include a significant responsibility for life and property. An advantage is that simulation training allows the trainer to find, study, and remedy skill deficiencies in their trainees in a controlled, virtual environment. This also allows the trainees an opportunity to experience and study events that would otherwise be rare on the job, e.g., in-flight emergencies, system failure, etc., wherein the trainer can run ‘scenarios’ and study how the trainee reacts, thus assisting in improving his/her skills if the event was to occur in the real world.


Examples of skills that commonly include simulator training during stages of development include piloting aircraft, spacecraft, locomotives, and ships, operating air traffic control airspace/sectors, power plant operations training, advanced military/defence system training, and advanced emergency response training.

Off-the-job training method takes place away from normal work situations — implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. Off-the-job training method also involves employee training at a site away from the actual work environment. It often utilizes lectures, seminars, case studies, role playing, and simulation, having the advantage of allowing people to get away from work and concentrate more thoroughly on the training itself. This type of training has proven more effective in inculcating concepts and ideas.

Many personnel selection companies offer a service which would help to improve employee competencies and change the attitude towards the job. The internal personnel training topics can vary from effective problem-solving skills to leadership training.


Training and development involves improving the effectiveness of organizations and the individuals and teams within them.[1] Training may be viewed as related to immediate changes in organizational effectiveness via organized instruction, while development is related to the progress of longer-term organizational and employee goals. While training and development technically have differing definitions, the two are oftentimes used interchangeably and/or together. Training and development has historically been a topic within applied psychology but has within the last two decades become closely associated with human resources management, talent management, human resources development, instructional design, human factors, and knowledge management.[1]



Training and development encompass three main activities: training, education, and development.


The “stakeholders” in training and development are categorized into several classes. The sponsors of training and development are senior managers. The clients of training and development are business planners. Line managers are responsible for coaching, resources, and performance. The participants are those who actually undergo the processes. The facilitators are Human Resource Management staff. And the providers are specialists in the field. Each of these groups has its own agenda and motivations, which sometimes conflict with the agendas and motivations of the others.

Especially in the last couple decades, training has become more trainee-focused, which allows those being trained more flexibility and active learning opportunities. For example, these active learning techniques include exploratory/discovery learning, error management training, guided exploration, and mastery training. Typical projects in the field include executive and supervisory/management development, new-employee orientation, professional-skills training, technical/job training, customer-service training, sales-and-marketing training, and health-and-safety training. Training is particularly critical in high-reliability organizations, which rely on high safety standards in order to prevent catastrophic damage to employees, equipment, or the environment (e.g. nuclear power plants, operating rooms).



Training has been used in organizations for the past several decades. Although training and development requires investments of many types, there are cited benefits to integrating training and development into organizations:

  • Increased productivity and job performance
  • Skills development
  • Team development
  • Decreasing safety-related accidents

However, if the training and development is not strategic and pointed at specific goals, it can lead to more harm than good. Needs assessments, especially when the training is being conducted on a large-scale, are frequently conducted in order to gauge what needs to be trained, how it should be trained, and how extensively. Needs assessments in the training and development context often reveal employee and management-specific skills to develop (e.g. for new employees), organizational-wide problems to address (e.g. performance issues), adaptations needed to suit changing environments (e.g. new technology), or employee development needs (e.g. career planning).


The degree of effectiveness of training and development programs can be predicted by the needs assessment and how closely the needs were met, the execution of the training (i.e. how effective the trainer was), and trainee characteristics (e.g. motivation, cognitive abilities). Effectiveness of training is typically done on an individual or team-level, with few studies investigating the impacts on organizations.



Compliance training refers to the process of educating employees on laws, regulations and company policies that apply to their day-to-day job responsibilities. An organization that engages in compliance training typically hopes to accomplish several goals: (1) avoiding and detecting violations by employees that could lead to legal liability for the organization; (2) creating a more hospitable and respectful workplace; (3) laying the groundwork for a partial or complete defence in the event that employee wrongdoing occurs despite the organization’s training efforts; and (4) adding business value and a competitive advantage.[1]

Organizations offer their employees compliance training on a wide range of topics, including workplace discrimination and harassment, dealings with competitors, insider trading, protecting trade secrets, records management, bribery and kickbacks, etc. Typically, most or all of these compliance topics are addressed in an organization’s Code of Conduct, and the organization may offer employees annual or bi-annual Code of Conduct training in lieu of requiring employees to take multiple individual training programs.


Types of Compliance Training

There are many industries that require highly specialized and unique compliance training. Some of these industries include the medical industry, banking industry, pharmaceutical industry and the food and beverage industry.

Who is required to have compliance training?

Companies in all business sectors are under pressure to demonstrate that their employees are trained in laws and regulations, and internal policies, that pertain to their roles. Most notably, companies in the financial and healthcare sectors – who face stringent regulations – and publicly regulated companies have taken the lead by instituting firm-wide compliance training programs. For example, WalMart would be required to train their employees on sexual harassment, data security, anti-harassment, and more.

For financial institutions, the key compliance training topics are anti money laundering, sanctions, and insider dealing (market abuse in the EU).



Compliance training can be performed in-house by compliance training specialists, or hired out to consultant firms. Some compliance training is done online.

Penalties for non-compliance

While this is entirely tied to the realm of compliance that is being considered, the penalties can range from a Fine, through the seizure of company assets, to jail time for executives of the company at fault.


References – This information was obtained via;